Social Processes

1.b.1. Dispute Resolution and Conflict Management

JUDICIAL SYSTEM  (Antang – Antang)

The Manobo Dulangan Indigenous Cultural Communities are generally peace loving, friendly, respectful and communitarian people. With these traits, they hardly ever come into conflict with others, even with the Non – IPS in the areas. As in other communities, some infractions of ethical behavior or normal relationship arise. The common infractions are covering another man’s wife, theft, cattle rustling, homicide, murder, and land disputes.  These infractions or disputes are usually brought to the attention of the Pig-ulokan/Sultan or Datu for resolution.

Egoh muna agdaw, sa medoo Manobo Dulangan, ICC’s/IP’s Inolo sa kehidu, tegeloyok, midaat owoy tegesagipa sa medoo duma di. Pineukit dahini, olun polo igkalikutan sa medoo Menubo – Dulangan medoo di sa enda egkesetiig owoy taka dade egkasalebang, lapeg ma di sa medoo liyo-bulbul

Procedure for Ventilation of Infractions or Disputes;

In seeking redress for a wrong or offense done, the offended party usually informs the Pig-ulokan/Sultan or Datu of the area. The Pig-ulokan/Sultan or Datu then asks for the presence of the offender and verifies the veracity of the complaint and its nature.  Then the parents of the offender are called to ask them to help settle the matter. After the presentation of evidences and oral arguments by either or both parties, penalties are promulgated by the Sultan or Datu against offender in the presence of the offended party in an amicable atmosphere.

Where the offender resides in another place from where the offense has been committed, the Datu of the place where the offended party resides is informed of the complaint.  In the presence of both parties, their respective Datus shall sit down in a conference, called Antang-antang. To discuss and resolve the case at hand, oftentimes, the offender is place under the custody of his Datu to ensure his safety.

Duen sa medoo ukit denu diya sa kepengagbet sa epe sala. Tulonon sa Sultan o Datu diya sa sebaen menuwa. Agule sa Sultan o Datu iya sa umigsa, sumaba humaa amuk enu di sa mebaalan problema. Agule sa Lukes sa migbael sa sala umowen I Sultan o Datu ani meantang sa sala binaalan. Ubos dahiya, amuk netiigan di sap alas sa sala, daya ma de metiigan sa guwaen multa pineukit diya sa Sultan ataw ka Datu.

Penalties

Usually, the penalty of a minor infraction is a Multa o Tamuk or fine which may consist an amount of money, item or property, such as a carabao, horse or agong.  The amount of money or the number of items to be given depends on the gravity of offense committed. In the case of the offense involving the abduction of wife, the woman is made choose between her lover and husband. If she chooses the former, her family is obliged to return the entire dowry to her husband and refund the expenses incurred for the wedding celebration.

Death penalty may be imposed on the offender by the Pig-ulokan/Sultan or the Datu in cases of serious offenses, such as recidivism, murder or disobedience to the orders of the Sultan.  This is imposed to the offender by allowing the offended party to slay the former with the use of bow and arrow or any other weapon to his choice.  Death penalty are rarely imposed because serious infractions are rarely committed by a community for they are to repeat, peace loving,  friendly, respectful, loving and social people. In recent years, death penalty is abandoned because of the awareness of the tribe to the current legal and judicial system of the Philippine Government.

To have a better understanding of a Manobo Dulangan culture, there is no case of land grabbing among this group. However there are cases wherein two parties may be at odds if criminal act is committed such as;

Ine sa mebaalan o baalan diya sa etaw migbael sala o ataw ka mig imatay o nekesaba diya sa taangan I Sultan. Amuk mig-imatay, igsaen sa epe nemetayan amuk ngadan sa keiyap da.

Sa bayad sala mebaloy tamok o pilak ma ugaed depende diya sa nebaalan sala, owoy sa guwaen, kalabaw, kuda o selagi. Siini langun depende diya sa binaalan sala.

Owoy sa keagaw sawa, sa baye inagaw, igsaen omen di memili amuk peliku diya sa tigtu sawa di ataw ka enda di. Amuk guwaen di enda di peliku a, agule ipeliku sa langun sunggod owoy duen pa sa lipang I baye owoy lipang I maama. Amuk guwaen di, peliku a, sa lipan daa o multa I baye owoy lipang I maama.

Murder (Kiimatay) & Rape (Linegen)

It is customary for the Manobo Dulangan to give tamok as settlement of the wrong done which normally varies because they are according to demands of the aggrieved party although the usual demands are any or all of the following: carabao, horse, land and sum money.  The variations of demands are usually due to status of the offended party in the community and/ or the perversity of the act committed.

Sa Manobo – Dulangan, needungan de sa guwaen kebegay tamok amuk nekesala ani meantang owoy mesepeliku sa pedu sa uman sebaen. Owoy duen ma sa liyo egpegeneyen, iling sa kalabaw, kuda, tana owoy pilak.

 Adultery (Igmudi)

The dowry or Sunggod given by the husband should be returned by the family of the wife including the expenses incurred by the husband for the wedding preparations.  In addition thereto, she will be further subjected pay to the damages as a consequence of her immoral act.

Amuk pila sa sunggod, igbeay sa epe sawa iya ma sa ibegay sa kena di egpemudi sa  baye, owoy lapeg ma di sa langun negasto di egoh di kenawing.Sa melom ekabaelan/egtebow kelikutan, sa keseagaway sawa, keimatay owoy kepekat tana. Siini langun sa Datu o Sultan sa umantang.

Concubinage (Ukit kasa kesesawanay atawka mudi)

The wife shall retain all forms of sunggod if husband seeks divorce in favor of another woman and shall be liable to pay damages suffered by the wife and reasonable provision for his children whose custody is awarded to her favor.

Tribal War

Tribal war shall be resolved through cutting of piece of rattan (Tagfed Blagen) or breaking of chickens’ egg and verbal agreement between the Datus of the belligerent tribes for the settlement of disputes which caused the tribal war.

 Determination of Guilt or Veracity of Statements;

In  cases where the penalty to be imposed is so severe such as death, and no one vouches for the innocence of accused, guilt or the veracity of statements of the accused may be established through pouring of water in the handkerchief.  In the event that the water drips from it, the accused shall be accordingly sentenced, however by God’s intervention, the water does not drip from the handkerchief, the accused will be pronounced as innocent. (Sa nasesebaenan tigtu metud). Another is through the use of iron bar (dinaig putew) wherein the accused is ordered to hold the blazing iron bar and if it immediately fallsfrom the accused hand, the severe sentence will be imposed.

1.b.2.  Consensus Building and Decision – Making processes towards Cooperation, Unity and Harmony;

As previously stated, the Pig-ulokan/Sultan rules over the territory. He acts as the chief executive and the ultimate arbiter of conflicts between and among his constituents. At the community level, he is represented by Datus and Kaunutan Datus.

A regular consultation, facilitated by the Pig-ulokan/Sultan, takes place among the above-stated personalities to resolve highly complicated disputes and community aspirations. This consultation or arbitration is called Antang- Antang and the resolution or judgement is called Antang.

 Kepelagbas owoy kebael sa pelanu mangay diya sa kesealukay kesesebaenay owoy kesepionoy.

Sak Sultan kagdi eg uwit sa nagdi nesasakupan lugar. Kagdi sa tigtu kaunutan eg uwit kitab nagdi menuwa owoy kagdi sa ig ayos medoo kaso diya nagdi medoo etaw. Iya nagdi  kitab antang-antang. Sak segudo sak Sultan iya sa Datu eg antang antang diya nesakupan menuwa.

 Sa Sultan igpatawag sugkew sa medoo datu ani antangen sa medoo problema diya sa medoo etaw di.

1.b.3 Mutual Help and Defense System

Mutual help and defense system of the tribe is achieved and concretized thru antang-antang and reverential relation between and among the Pig-ulokan/Sultanand Datus. Hence, thru the antang of the Pig-ulokan/SultanSultan, pacts, treaties and arrangements on mutual help and defense are established and determined and are locally known as Antang Kesetabangay. Existing pacts, treaties or arrangement is known as “ Antang”

Egbaelan diya sa kesebuligay owoy kesealukay

 Ig antangen sa medoo datu siya etaw nasugat antang owoy duen sa igtabang sa medoo datu laga sebaan kuda diya etaw nasugat antang. Owoy ig umaned sido medoo datu sat amok sa nasugat antang amuk kulang.iya sa antang kesetabangay.

1.b.4.  Specialized Functions in relation to observance of Rituals

 The ritualists of the Manobo Dulangan Indigenous Cultural Communities are called Bleyans. They are the bastion of the spirituality of the communites and perform rituals appease or pacify elemental beings and give gratitude to Nemula. Offerings may consist rice, chickens, tobacco and betel nuts which they place on an altar or sacred ground.

Rituals vary and are independent on the aspirations of the IP or ICC. To name a few, they are as follows;

1. Kailawan– post harvest ritual which is basically to pay gratitude for a good harvest.
Salagaan –  paganigani diya nemula dakel sa nakuwa diya sa name henemula.
2. Duyoy– a series of chants which are focus on history of the place, life of their ancestors and pronouncement of appreciation to Nemula. It is usually perform during the opening of their annual gathering.

Doyuy – medoo sa igkasugat diya menuwa owoy diya siya medoo kalukeslukesan owoy igbigay tapayapaya diya si Nemula. Igbaelan iyawe katapayapaya upama duen sa igpaganeyen ke diya Nemula.

3. Igelagaan – a ritual intended for the quick recovery of an ailing member of the tribe. The usual offering for this ritual is a concoction of rice and egg place in a bowl locally known as langa.

Igelagaan – sa etaw eglenado ani maleme agkalikuan.
 
4. Tugda– pre- sowing ritual requesting for a good harvest. Usually blood of a chicken or pig is spilled on the farm area. A duka (stain of a tree is being burned and let the odor of the duka filled the palay, belief is good harvest.

Tugda –iya sa egbaelan amuk ig uhok owoy kumapion sa bunga palay owoy kumadakel sa tubas di.

 5.  Sogoy sogoy–an encantation relating their histories remembering the good deeds of their forefathers, ancestors and elders encompassing their traditions from generations to generations. Through this belief they feel comfortable at the assurance that even their forebears had already gone their spirit is with them.  They believe that the spirit of their forefathers has entered into stones, rivers, in the air, trees, etc . . . interceding in their behalf and always there guiding them and show miracles.

Sogoy – sogoy- sa medoo igkageyen pinaukit sa kepenemdem sa medoo kafeonon medoo lukes pinaukit kesogoy- sogoy mangay duto pusaka lukes ke igkepemdem sa medoo kefeonon  goh di anay nahagtay di plawa.Na igpetuuwen ke pinaukit sine sogoy – sogoy mapenemdem ke tafay lawa nehagtay da. Iya pusuwen di afiya enda duen da di dine ugaed tafay duu laga daine da denu di ke daine ma sa sogoy da afiya di fa malugay da di nematay. 

6.  Kotom – a ritual done by a religious elder believe to have a power to rebuke evil spirits and can perform miraculous healing through meditation.

 Kotom – pinaukit siini kebaalan medoo lukes igpigtuuwen igkadanan sa medoo denado owoy megkebaloy sa kabulong anigka kumefion sa medoo enda mafion lawa owoy kadenado.

1.c Access to Resources

1.c.1. Applicable community imperatives in accordance with customary law as  on the access and benefit – sharing agreements/wealth management on resources.

Egpekelapeg menuwa umunot diya sa medoo adat binealan ani mekekuwa owoy mekelapeg – diya sa kesebegayay sa nesesebaenan/ egkekegaga egbaelan diya legkengan sa medoo egkegaga.

Land Acquisition

1. A Manobo Dulangan of a royal blood lineage may occupy and possess an unclaimed parcel of land after have a previous land preparation thereto.
Sa Manobo Dulangan mabaloy mekekuwa tana owoy umugpa diya taman maluay lafeg ma di amuk ubos di tiniba owoy kiniluwan.
 
2. A Manobo Dulangan may acquire a parcel of land through inheritance.

Sa Manobo Dulangan igkwaen di sa tana igbegay sa medoo lukes di.
 
3. A landless Manobo Dulangan may acquire a parcel of land through an award by the Datu for exemplary deeds.
 
Sa enda duen tana dumuen sa tana pinaukit diya sa kesebegay medoo datu amuk igtabang diya sa medoo igantangantangen.

4. A Manobo Dulangan may acquire a parcel of land through Sunggod.

Dumuen ma sa tana menubo pineukit diya sunggod.

5. A Non – Community member may acquire a parcel of land provide that he will respect the customary laws, traditions and practices of the Manobo Dulangan Indigenous Cultural Community.

Sa etaw enda daya di eg ugpa dumuen ma sa nagdi tana amuk unutan di sa medoo adat o kitab sa menuwa menubo.
 
A Manobo Dulangan must build a farm- hut on his newly opened area to establish occupancy and ownership thereof.

Sa menubo dulangan mekabael ma dasan diya sa magto inawangan ani matigto Sa nagdi ma.

  Land Distribution

1. The parents may assign parcels of land to their children.

Sa Lukes sa sebaan Malayan kagdi sa bumigay tana sa medoo anak di.

2. The eldest son of the widow has all the right to assign areas to his younger brothers.
Sa muna anak sa balo iya sa ipi katoo ani bumigay sa tana diya hagdi medoo hadi.
The Datu who has jurisdiction over the area may distribute lands to the landless members of the community.

Sa ulo sa medoo datu sa mebaloy bumigay sa tana sa medoo ataw enda duen tana.

3. Relative to lands assigned by parents to their daughters, the sons-in-law merely work for its development and have no right to own the land. In the event of death of the assignee, the same shall be awarded to their children. In the absence of the latter, the same shall revert back the relatives of the wife.
Sa medoo duma sa lukes sab aye ataw ka sa medoo bebe da amuk igalbek denu diya sa kabaluyan kaugpa owoy enda duen katoo diya sa ipi tana.

Delineation/ Boundaries

1. Established boundaries shall be recognized and respected. Among the
recognized traditional boundary markers are cassava shrub, creeks, rivers, ridges, hills, trees, bamboo and white stone boulder.

Sa elet metiigan pinaukit diya sa tanda iling ka sa medoo dakel kayo.

Sawitan or Sawit – a practice reflective of an indigenous communal farming wherein all members of the community equally share the harvest.

Sawitan ataw ka Sawit – Ine sa kesebuligay ataw ka ketenggawalba diya sa kena egalbek tana endaw kena diya sa medoo nitibo.

1.c.2 Monitoring and Evaluation as well as indicators on Sustainable Development Resources;
 
The monitoring is primarily done by the Kaunutan Datu. He would then report his findings, during the regular Antang-antang, to his Datu or Sultan for evaluation and appropriate action thru an Antang.
          
Kehaa owoy Ketelepuk diya ma sa medoo tegetulon denu diya sa keupion sa medoo egkegaga.
          
 
2.c.3. Role of Women in the sustainable development of the domain.

1. The wife or any female in the community hardly participates in any social gathering or meeting. On occasion where she participate in a meeting or conference, her presence is hardly appreciated by the males for her comments or answers questions or inquiries are not taken seriously and often times are mock by the males around. Hence they would rather respond or comment almost inaudibly and outside from the circle of males. Sometimes she simply makes inaudible comments in the kitchen or squatting on the ground outside the venue. She may only express her ideas in the presence of other women or children.         

Sa medoo baye enda aglenged di sa Limod owoy enda benegayan adatsiya enda Booy enda ma makabaloy di umigsa, enda ma pigtuuwen sa medoo maama owoy Datu.
 
2. Lately, there are improvements in the Manoba’s awareness of her role in the community because of recent advocacy on women by the government and non-government organizations. It is a big leap, however, they are fully aware that thier cultural, traditions and practices are deeply embedded,hence, it may take decades for the realization of the Manoba Dulangan aspiration of having appropriate dignity and respect from their community.

Egoh sa medoo baye benegayan di adat igpakaawok da di diya sa programa’t gobyerno maendya sa medoo baye kagdi sa tak a igtalad sa medoo programa.

3. Written and oral accounts of customs and tradition on governance system and how these have responded to the changing socio – political order.
 
Written and oral accounts on customs, traditions and practices on governance of the Manobo Dulangan Indigenous Cultural Communities, as stated in 2.a, are existing and are religiously practiced. In recent years, imposition of death penalty has been abandoned because of the awareness of the tribe to the current legal and and judicial system prohibiting the same. In fact, more often than not, Non-IP offenders chooses to be tried thru customary laws and local PNP officers seeks the intervention of tribal leaders for the early resolution of the dispute or case.

Sa medoo nekesulat adat owoy tradition igbaelan di pa taman egoh. Samedooukit Manobo goh anay uk makasala imatayan da amuk enda duen datu
a daya owoy booy egoh enda di egbaelan maendya sa Manobo nakatiig di kitab sa gobyerno.

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